Diarrhea is defined by the World Health Organization as having 3 or more loose or liquid stools per day, or as having more stools than is normal for that person.
Secretory of Diarrhoea
There is little to no structural damage. The most common cause of this type of diarrhea is a cholera toxin
Osmotic of Diarrhoea
Osmotic diarrhea occurs when too much water is drawn into the bowels.
- This can be the result of maldigestion (e.g., pancreatic disease or celiac disease),
- osmotic laxatives (which work to alleviate constipation by drawing water into the bowels).
- In healthy individuals, too much magnesium or vitamin C or undigested lactose can produce osmotic diarrhea and distention of the bowel
- A person who has lactose intolerance can have difficulty absorbing lactose after an extraordinarily high intake of dairy products.
Exudative of Diarrhoea
Exudative diarrhea occurs with the presence of blood and pus in the stool. This occurs with inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, and other severe infections such as E. coli or other forms of food poisoning.
Motility-related of Diarrhoea
Motility-related diarrhea is caused by the rapid movement of food through the intestines (hyper motility). If the food moves too quickly through the gastrointestinal tract, there is not enough time for sufficient nutrients and water to be absorbed.
- This can be due to a agronomy or diabetic neuropathy, or a complication of menstruation].
- Hyperthyroidism can produce hyper motility and lead to pseudo diarrhea and occasionally real diarrhea.
Inflammatory diarrhea occurs when there is damage to the mucosal lining or brush border, which leads to a passive loss of protein-rich fluids, and a decreased ability to absorb these lost fluids. It can be caused by bacterial infections, viral infections, parasitic infections, or autoimmune problems such as inflammatory bowel diseases. It can also be caused by tuberculosis, colon cancer, and enteritis
Infection - Infectious diarrhea
There are many causes of infectious diarrhea, which include viruses, bacteria and parasites Norovirus is the most common cause of viral diarrhea in adults, but rotavirus is the most common cause in children under five years old. Adenovirus types 40 and 41, and astroviruses cause a significant number of infections.
The bacterium campylobacter is a common cause of bacterial diarrhea, but infections by salmonellae, shigellae and some strains of Escherichia coli (E.coli) are frequent. In the elderly, particularly those who have been treated with antibiotics for unrelated infections, a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile often causes severe diarrhea.
In many cases of diarrhea, replacing lost fluid and salts is the only treatment needed. This is usually by mouth – oral rehydration therapy – or, in severe cases, intravenously.
- Anti motility agents
- Bismuth compounds
- Codeine phosphate