Down syndrome (DS), is called as Trisomy 21. It is a condition in which extra Genes causes delayed child development, both mentally and physically. It affects about 1 in every 800 babies.
The physical features and problems associated with Down syndrome can vary from child to child. While some kids with DS need a lot of medical attention, others lead healthy lives.
Though Down syndrome can't be prevented, it can be detected before a child is born. The health problems that can go along with DS can be treated, and there are many resources within communities to help kids and their families who are living with the condition.
Normally, baby inherits genetic information from its parents in the form of 46 chromosomes during conception these are 23 from the mother and 23 from the father.
In most cases of Down syndrome, a child gets an extra chromosome 21 — for a total of 47 chromosomes instead of 46. It's this extra genetic material that causes the physical features and developmental delays associated with DS.
Although no one knows for sure why it occurs and thus it is difficult to prevent the chromosomal error that causes it.
Women age 35 and older have a significantly higher risk of having a child with the condition.
The chance of being DS At age 30, a woman has about a 1 in 900, 1 in 350 by age 35 ,By 40 the risk rises to about 1 in 100.
Symptoms of Down Syndrome
The following are some of the symptoms of Down Syndrome:
• Certain physical features are like flat face ,upward slant eyes, small ears, and a protruding tongue.
• Low muscle tone (called hypotonia)
• Babies are "floppy." This can improve over time.
• Most children reach developmental milestones — like sitting up, crawling, and walking — later than other kids.
• At birth they are average size, but they tend to grow at a slower rate and remain smaller than their peers.
• Delays in speech and self-care skills like feeding, dressing, and toilet teaching.
• Affects ability to learn in different ways, but most have mild to moderate intellectual impairment.
Medical Problems Associated With DS
• Almost half of all children born with DS will have a congenital heart defect.
• High risk of developing pulmonary hypertension
• Approximately half of them have problems with hearing and vision.
• Other problems :thyroid problems, intestinal abnormalities, seizure disorders, respiratory problems, obesity, an increased susceptibility to infection, and a higher risk of childhood leukemia.
• Upper neck abnormalities are sometimes found and should be evaluated by a physician (these can be detected by cervical spine X-rays). Fortunately, many of these conditions are treatable.
Homeopathic treatment for Down Syndrome
Two types of prenatal tests are used to detect Down syndrome in a fetus:
1. Screening tests: it estimates the risk of fetus being DS (cost effective but less sensitive)
• Nuchal translucency testing (performed between 11 and 14 weeks of pregnancy)
• The triple screen or quadruple screen (also called the multiple marker test (between 15 and 18 weeks of pregnancy)
• Integrated screen
• A genetic ultrasound (performed at 18 to 20 weeks in conjunction with the blood tests)
2. Diagnostic tests: tells whether the fetus actually has the condition. (99% sensitive)
Invasive diagnostic testing generally recommended for women age 35 or older, those with a family history of genetic defects, or those who've had an abnormal result on a screening test.
• Chorionic villus sampling (CVS). (between 8 and 12 weeks)
• Amniocentesis. (between 15 and 20 weeks)
• Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS) (performed after 20 weeks)
After a baby is born, if the doctor suspects DS based on the infant's physical characteristics, a karyotype — a blood or tissue sample stained to show chromosomes grouped by size, number, and shape — can be performed to verify the diagnosis.
Early-intervention services as soon as possible. Physical, occupational, and speech therapists and early-childhood educators can work with your child to encourage and accelerate development.
These children needs a specialized school program
Fortunately all the associated medical ailments can be well managed with treatment. Their development as comparatively can be well managed with other peer and family helps. Diet and exercise is mandatory.