Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GORD), gastric reflux disease, or acid reflux disease is chronic symptoms or mucosal damage caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus
Cause of Reflux Oesophagitis
GERD is usually caused by changes in the barrier between the stomach and the esophagus, including abnormal relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, which normally holds the top of the stomach, closed; impaired expulsion of gastric reflux from the esophagus, or a hiatal hernia.
Signs & Symptoms ofReflux Oesophagitis
The most-common symptoms of GERD are:
- Trouble swallowing (dysphagia)
Less-common symptoms include:
- Pain with swallowing (odynophagia)
- Excessive salivation (also known as water brash) is common during heartburn, as saliva is generally slightly alkaline and is the body's natural response to heartburn, acting similarly to an antacid)
- Chest pain
GERD sometimes causes injury of the esophagus. These injuries may include:
- Reflux esophagitis – necrosis of esophageal epithelium causing ulcers near the junction of the stomach and esophagus.
- Esophageal strictures – the persistent narrowing of the esophagus caused by reflux-induced inflammation.
- Barrett's esophagus – intestinal metaplasia (changes of the epithelial cells from squamous to intestinal columnar epithelium) of the distal esophagus.
- Esophageal adenocarcinoma – a rare form of cancer.
Several other atypical symptoms are associated with GERD, but there is good evidence for causation only when they are accompanied by esophageal injury. These symptoms are:
- Chronic cough
- Laryngitis (hoarseness, throat clearing)
- Erosion of dental enamel
- Dentine hypersensitivity
- Sinusitis and damaged teeth